SMOKING AND YOUTH
Reality of Smoking ;
· The battle of smoking heated up in 1994, the 30th anniversary of the day cigarette packages started carrying the Surgeon General's warning.
· Smoking is related to about 419,000 deaths each year - American Cancer Society
· Second hand smoke can cause up to 3,000 lung-cancer deaths a year and 30,000 deaths from heart disease. From the Environmental Protection Agency.
· The Environmental Protection Agency says that : - burning tobacco is a cancer causing agent- smoke rising off a burning cigarette contains levels of 17 carcinogens (More dangerous than smoke the smoker inhales.)- tobacco also causes 12,000 non-lung cancer deaths in adults, 30,000 bronchitis and pneumonia cases in children under the age 18 months, and 8,000 to 26,000 cases of asthma in children each year.
· The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reports that : cigarette smoke is responsible for more deaths each year than ones caused by AIDS, alcohol, car accidents, cocaine, crack, heroin, fires, homicide, and suicide combined.
· Only 599 chemicals of the 700 that are really there were made public by tobacco companies. The rest were trade secrets. Eight of these concerned the FDA. they are methoprene (an insecticide), ammonia, ethyl furoate, and five food additives. Information provided by : Food and Drug Administration.
· 700 chemical additives are added to cigarettes, including pesticides, insecticides, and 13 additives that are inedible. Reported by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
· INFACT says that : More than 300 teens in the U.S. become smokers every day.
· People that work in sit-down restaurants that allow smoking face a 300-500% exposure rate than the average citizen in a smoking office. That is equivalent to smoking one and a half to two packs of cigarettes a day.
· Nicotine has a poisonous insecticide manufactured by the tobacco plant. Insects that eat the leaves of that plant die, because the poison jams their communication system. Humans are bigger and it takes 60mg of nicotine to have the same effect. The average cigarette contains 1mg of nicotine.
· Studies say African Amricans die from lung and throat cancer at a higher rate than whites.
· China is the world's leading producer of tobacco.
· Tobacco contains over 4,000 different chemicals.
· Large doses of nicotine can cause a decrease in the production of urine.
· The single largest preventable cause of premature death and disability in the United States is smoking.
· The costs for medical cost for smoking related illnesses is $22 billion.
· The economy losses $44 billion from lost productivity.
· Once nicotine reaches the lungs, its effects reach the brain within six seconds - twice as fast as mainlining heroin.
· Low tar and nicotine smokers have a mortality rate 16% lower than that of high tar and nicotine smokers.
· At least 12 million people in the United States use smokeless tobacco, half of them are regular users.
· Second-hand smoke causes about 2,400 lung cancer deaths a year.
· Studies show that non-smoking wives with smoking husbands have a 35% higher risk of lung cancer opposed to women with husbands who don't smoke.
· Five people die of smoking related deaths every six seconds.
· Children are twice as likely to become smokers if they grow up in homes with parents who smoke.
· Smoking causes 30% of all cancer deaths.
· The five year survival rate for lung cancer is 10%
· A pregnant woman who smokes two packs a day blocks off the equivalent of 25% of the oxygen supply to the fetus.
· Expecting mothers who smoke experience more stillbirths, spontaneous abortions, premature births, and low weight babies than that of expecting mothers that don't smoke.
· Cigarette smoking causes 75% of lung cancer cases among women, 85% among men, and 83% overall.
SMOKING DESTROY OUR ORGANS
When a person smokes, the brain moves into a state of higher arousal. This is dangerous because it can produce short term memory loss, tumors of the brain, and many other complications. Most all toxins eventually reach the brain and harm it in some way. That is why almost one million Americans have had brain complications in the past year with the number on the rise.
Discoloration of the Fingers
After smoking for a lengthy amount of time, your fingernails will become too grotesque to even look at. The nails will become discolored when they are exposed to certain chemicals. In this case, it's smoke from a cigarette and even contact with the chemicals themselves when you hold the cigarette in your hand. All different chemicals can cause an array of colors such as: Brown, yellow, gray, or even black.
Internal disorders can also deform your nails. Clubbing of the nail can occur when you have lung or heart disease. Clubbing of the nail happens like this: Your fingers or toes thicken, and your nail wraps around it.
Hemoglobin, a substance in red blood cells, carries oxygen to cells and tissues in our bodies. Hemoglobin latches on to carbon monoxide nearly 200 times more readily than it does to oxygen. The carbon monoxide in cigarettes impairs the oxygen-carrying capacity of the hemoglobin. This means that there is less oxygen being carried around the body. This causes the heart to work harder, because it has to pump smaller amounts of oxygen throughout the body. Carbon monoxide actually deprives the cells and tissues (including the heart muscle) of oxygen.
Nicotine stimulates adrenal glands. This causes the body to secrete adrenaline and non adrenaline. In excess, these substances can cause a persons blood pressure and heart rate to increase which means the heart must work harder. The heart muscle, as a result, needs more oxygen which it is not getting because of the carbon monoxide in cigarettes. People who suffer from angina may have chest pains because of the excess stress put on the heart. Also, platelets in the blood can become sticky and clump onto the surface of plaques which are already present in the coronary arteries. This may lead to heart attacks. Furthermore, nicotine can cause heart arrhythmias. This is a serious disturbance that occurs because nicotine causes the heart to become more excitable and thus causes extra heart beats to occur.
Cancer of the Larynx
Smoking can change your life tremendously. There are many different cancers smoking causes and we will mention as many as we can. Laryngeal cancer is one of them. It affects the larynx, which is part of the throat. Once you have this cancer, if can be treated by two methods: x-ray therapy, and surgery. In the case of surgery, you may have partial or total loss of your larynx. Serious changes in speech will happen if the entire larynx is removed. One, you will have to learn a new method of speech if you want to be able to communicate with the world. Of course, most people do, and they will have to learn to swallow air and bring it back up. In other words, you will have to burp and form words with the sound. If for some reason you can't master this, tissue will be replaced in order to gain back your speech.
When we were in seventh grade, we met people that had this happen to them. Three people visited our school. They were called 'The Lost Chords'. Two of them had to use the method of bringing air back up. The other one had a kind of microphone that he pressed to his throat. Then he would try to speak and the electro-larynx would bring up his voice to a louder volume. He sounded like a computer! All three of them had a small hole in their throat, (a tracheostomy), for they didn't use the upper part of their throat to speak. They don't breath through their nose, either. They can't swim, and they have to be extremely careful when they take a shower, because they could easily drown if any water gets in the tracheostomy. If you think about this in the big swing of things, they were lucky. They are still alive and can tell us why we shouldn't smoke. When they spoke to us about what had happened, we almost ran out of tissues. It was so sad what they had done to themselves by sheer ignorance. They didn't know that smoking could easily kill them. Scientists were just learning about the horrible effects. And they turned out to be very horrible indeed.
Your body constantly needs oxygen to stay alive. It also needs to dispose of carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism. This exchange of gases takes place in your lungs. Inhaling smoke exposes your lungs to many poisonous toxins. To protect themselves, the lungs produce alot of phlegm to get rid of these toxins. Also, there is less absorption of oxygen in the lungs, therefore, less oxygen being delivered to your body.
The main airway, the bronchus, that leads into each lung divides into many smaller and smaller airways. These tubes are called bronchioles. At the end of each bronchiole is a cluster of airsacs called alveoli. There are millions of alveoli in each lung. This is where the air exchange takes place.
Smoking causes many different types of damage to the lungs. In emphysema, the alveoli become damaged. Healthy lungs have an elastic, spongy texture so that they can contract and expand fully. From long term exposure to smoke, the alveoli become stretched or ruptured and the elasticity of the lungs it gradually destroyed. The main symptom of emphysema is shortness of breath, which worsens over time. Eventually, the chest will expand into a barrel like shape.
Chronic bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchi, the main airways. This inflammation persists and becomes worse as long as the exposure to smoke continues. This is an extremely dangerous disease, because in the long, early stage, it is hard to detect. The bronchi and bronchioles thicken and distort the lining of the tubes.
The first symptom of chronic bronchitis is a morning cough that brings up phlegm or sputum. Over the years, the amount of phlegm increases and the coughing continues all day. Breathlessness and wheezing are also symptoms. During the early stages, only bad colds or influenza can cause flare-ups. Later on, even minor head colds can bring on a severe attack.
Lung cancer starts with the constant irritation of smoke on the lining of the bronchi. These hair-like cilia which filter air disappear from the lining and a mucous takes its place. This mucous is trapped and is forced out of the lungs by "smokers cough." If a smoker quits smoking before cancerous cells are present, the bronchial lining can repair itself. If the abnormal cell growth has begun, the cancer will spread, blocking the bronchi and attacking other lung tissue. As the cancer progresses, the abnormal cells break loose from the lung and are taken by the lymphatic system to other vital organs, where new cancers begin.
Gingivostomatitis and Leukoplakia are two diseases of the mouth that come from smoking. The first disease, (the one I won't even bother to repeat) produce mouth and gum sores. it is caused by excessive amounts of bacteria which smoking contributes to. Leukoplakia is a thickened, hardened, white patch on the cheek or tongue. It is caused by smoking, and holding chewing tobacco or snuff in the mouth for a long time. When your mouth becomes irritated by the tobacco smoke or snuff, it puts up a protection against that. It becomes a hard white patch so it will keep the irritants out. Trench mouth, is also caused by smoking. It is rare, and usually occurs in young adults aged 15-35. Trench mouth is also called ulcerative gingivitis. It is called that because the gums begin to disintegrate, leaving the tooth sticking out.
Effects on the mouth from smoking usually becomes oral cancer. Symptoms of that are a small, pale lump or a thickening in the mouth. Use of tobacco is a large risk factor.
The nose is a very delicate piece of the human anatomy. Like other parts of the body, the cartilage which it contains is sensitive to the world around it. Smoke that rises from a cigarette enters through the nose just like air would. However, once it gets into the nose, it seeps into the cartilage and disrupts it. Sneezing and other minor signs of irritation might occur in the beginning. However, provided the smoke stays in the cartilage, a process of deterioration will occur after a prolonged period of time.
Smoking Is Expensive!
Amount of Cigarettes Smoked Per Day
Amount Spent on Cigarettes Per Year
Quarter of a Pack
Half of a Pack
One and a Half Packs
Two and a Half Packs
cost of pack $2.00
WHATS IN CIGARETTE ?
1. Nicotine, one of the most powerful poisons known. It is also more addictive than Heroin.
2. One cigarette contains more than 4000 chemicals, many of which can cause cancer
3. Hydrogen Cyanide - this was used in gas chambers during World War II
4. Carbon Monoxide - found in exhaust fumes from cars, reduces the oxygen carrying capability of the blood
5. Tar - contains a number of poisonous chemicals and also causes stains on smokers' fingers, teeth and lung tissue
6. Metals - nickel, arsenic (white ant poison) and cadmium (used in car batteries).
IS PASSIVE SMOKING HARMFULL FOR YOUNG CHILDEN?
Passive smoking is harmful to everyone. Children are even more at risk because of their less powerful immune system:
· Growth and development of their lungs is slowed down.
· More likely to get coughs, cold and infections like pneumonia
· Asthma gets worse or they may even develop asthma for the first time.
· More ear, nose and throat problems (like laryngitis).
· More likely to become smokers by following their parents
WHEN WE START SMOKING THESE ARE BECOME
Within 20 minutes
Blood pressure and pulse rate drop to normal body temperature of hands, feet rises to normal.
Within 8 hours
Carbon monoxide level in blood drops to normal.
Oxygen level in blood rises to normal.
Chance of heart attack starts to decrease.
Nerve ending starts to grow back. Ability to smell and taste improves.
Bronchial tubes relax, making breathing easier. Lung capacity increases.
2 weeks to 3 months
Circulation improves. Walking becomes easier. Lung function increases up to 30%.
For men, sperms will return to normal and the number of sperm will increase. For women, fertility level will improve.
Coughing, sinus congestion, fatigue, shortness of breath decreases. Body's overall energy level increases.
Risk of heart attack decreases to that of a non-smoker.
Lung cancer death rates drop to about the same as non-smokers. Risk of other cancers (mouth, larnyx, oesophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas) decreases.
Smoking is disgusting, harmful and unpleasant. Just don't get started.
SURVEY OF SMOKING ON YOUTH IN CANADA
Youth Smoking in the Provinces
The prevalence of all youth that ever tried smoking cigarettes decreased throughout all of the provinces. In 2002, the percentage of youth that ever tried smoking cigarettes ranged from a low of 15% in British Columbia to a high of 37% in Quebec. In 1994 the percentage of youth that had ever tried smoking cigarettes ranged from a low of 34% in Nova Scotia to 46% in Quebec.
Reasons for Starting
The most commonly stated perceived reason that youth start to smoke was the behaviour of their friends (65%). Behaviour of friends becomes a more important perceived reason as youth get older, with 73% of grade 9 students stating this as the most important reason that youth begin to smoke.
Almost half of all youth that have never tried smoking believed that kids start to smoke because they think its cool or because popular kids smoke. With respect to current smokers, only about one-quarter thought that kids start smoking because "it's cool" or because "popular kids smoke". About half of all youth believe that youth start smoking due to curiosity.
THE AIM OF THIS STUDY; To study relatıonshıp between smokıng and sex dıfferances ın North Cyprıot and also to find age differences. Who is smoking the most betweem 17 to 25 ages? Who is smoking most boys bor girls?
THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS STUDY ; My study is important becouse smoking is increasing day by day between teenagers. Why they want to smoke ? Where do they smoke most? I did this surver to find that question answers. Exactly , we will learn why do they smoke most.
HYPOTHESİS; Friends group and habit-addiction effect youth smoking behaviours deeply.
The sample consist of 25 girls and 25 boys whose continue to smoking today.
I find 50 person whose smoke and their age between 17 to 25 . 25 of them are girls, 25 of them are boys. I did this survey in Lefkoşa. I use random sampling.
- Sociodemographic Data Sheet ; This was used to elicit the basic information of age, sex, education, socio-economic income, occupation, placed and marital status.
- Smoking Health Questionnaire : This is a multi- dimensional scale that was used as a screening instrument in the present study. It consists of 47 items in a statement form with a six point rating scale forms.
From this pie chart 17-18-19 age group %44, 20-21-22 age group %22 , 23-24-25 age group %34. ı want to show this age status becaouse of smoking start in a little age. But my main item is they start to smoke early. You can see this in other graphıcs.
I determined that who join this survey, they start to smoke 14-15 ages, surely this situation increase the addiction of smoking reasons. When the smoking age is decrase , addiction is going to increase. They have right ratio between addiction and age .
If we start to reseach why do they start to smoke , we will see untidy results. There is only %38 friends effection , this is very important. Because of that we should be carefully to choose our friends.
When we look at the our samples consumtions of cigarettes , we see this results. If we think like that, 1-10 cigarette smoking does not very risky. But up to 10 cigarette use for a day have %74 in this survey and they have very strong risk in their life. From this survey, one of man affet me alot whose smoking 2 packege in a day. This is really grave situation.
If we look at the situation of smoking percentage , smokers do not choose a place a lot. But ı can not pass to say that friends situation are very important again.
Also they choose to smoke with their friendS and entertaining places. But they said that the situation are not important for them they just think to smoke.
If we look at the smokers, they find themself partly succesful .
When we look out the socio-economik income status we understand that middle income increase the smoking behaviours because they always have a future and money anxious.
If we contınue the reseach of smoking behaviours I find that habit-addiction %44 is big reason to contınue smoking. Also we will undersatand the reason of to smoking years have a relationship with habit- addiction. Because of that if someone wnts to give up smoking , must do it today do not postpone it.
In first questionnerie form ,I can evaluate this questıons. In second form, if we evaluate generally they do not find smoking as a social phenomenon. On the other hand, they do not think that smoking give status. But I find something interesting in that subject ; they find that smoking psychologıcaly effect them.
They feel relax when they smoke, to control their emotion, decrease nervous tension, decrease excited (ect.) . nearly all of them find these are very positive results of smoking.
Expecially , they think that to give up smoking should be have a self-control. When I asked do you give up smoking when you want. %55 answer that they can do.
Smoking prevelans with child and teenagers connect to 10 main health criterion. According to this group addiction must be prevent for society health. This is the main urgent problem.
Control method can be these; firstly we prevent to find cigarette,prevent every advertisement and promotion , family and others(doctors, teachers..) must be a specimen also whole society.
In the other hand, we must say somking deseases in our body and healty also what kind of problem will be placed in our future. Then we will tell this, smoking give a desesase do not only smokers , also for others whose placed nearly smokers. Nobody has a reson to make us passive smokers.
End of my sentences, when we will maryy and will have a child , show same sensitivity about smoking. Because all of them start to smoke with this question; what happened if ı smoked once. We must take our children friends whose think lake that away.
I wish a world without cigarette and fume
HAZIRLAYAN : Neşe İLGİN
DANIŞMAN : Prof. Dr. Orhan ÇİFTÇİ
- Doll R, Wheatley K, Gray R, Sutherland 1. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years observation on made British doctors. BMJ 1994 ; 309: 901-11
- World Health Organization. World Health Report 1999.
- Martha R. Evans. Cigarettes : U.S. output, removals, and consumption, 1950-2000. Tobacco Situation and Outlook. Market and Trade Economics Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture , December 2000, TBS-248. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/so/wiew.asp?f=specialty/tbs-bb/05.03.2005
- Sezer RE. Dünyada ve Türrkiyede Sigara Tüketim Eğimleri. Hipokrat Dergisi 2002; 11:56-63
- Bilir Ş, Mağden D. Hacettepe Üniversitesi öğrencilerinin sigara- alkol- ilaç alma ve uyuşturucu madde kullanma alışkanlığının araştırılması. Sağlık Dergisi 1984; 58: 15-30
- Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari bilimler Fakultesi İşletme Bölümü Tez 400 Bitirme Çalışması Recep Balta, Sigara ve Gençlik Araştırması Trabzon , 2004
- Özdel L, Bostancı M. Pamukkale Üniversitesi öğrencilerde baş ağrısı ile sigara içme arasındaki ilişki. Sigara ve Sağlık Ulusal kongresi Özet Kitabı
- Cinsiyetiniz: kız ( ) erkek ( )
- Eğitim Düzeyiniz : İlkokul ( ) , Ortaokul ( ), Lise ( ) , Üniversite ( )
- Sosyo-Ekonomik Düzeyiniz : Çok düşük ( ), Düşük ( ), Orta ( ), Yüksek ( )
- Medeni Durumunuz: Evli ( ), Bekar ( ) , Boşanmış ( )
- Şuan ikamet ettiğiniz yer : Şehir ( ), Köy ( ) , Kasaba ( )
Duygularım ( ), Düşüncelerim ( ), Eylemlerim ( )
- Nekadar süreden beri sigara içiyorsunuz?.................
- Günde ortalama kaç tane sigara içiyorsunuz ?...............
- Sigarayı daha çok hangi ortamlarda içiyorsuznu ?..........
- Sizce aşağıdakilerden hangisi daha çok davranışlarınız üzerinde etkilidir?
Çok başarılı ( ), Kısmen başarılı ( ), Kısmen başarısız ( ), Çok başarısız ( )
- Kendinizi hayatta başarılı olma açısından nasıl değerlendiriyorsunuz?
Arkadaş grubu ( ), Aile ( ), Stres ( ), Merak ( ), Özenti ( ), Diğer ( )
- Sigaraya başlamanızda aşağıdakilerden hangisinin rölü daha fazladır?
Arkadaş grubu ( ), Stres ( ), Zevk ( ), Kilo alma endişesi ( ), Alışksnlık- bağımlılık ( ), Diğer( )
8.Sigarayı aşağıdakilerden en çok hangisi ile şekillendiriyorsunuz?
Duygularımla ( ), Düşüncelerimle ( ), Davranışlarımla ( ), Vücudumla ( )
9.Ebebeyinlerinizde sigara için var mı? Var ise işaretleyin.
Anne içiyor ( ), Baba içiyor ( ), Her ikiside içiyor ( ), İçmiyorlar ( )
10. Sigara içmeyi hiç bıraktığınız oldu mu ? Bıraktıysanız kaç kez bıraktınız?.....................
11. Son zamanlardaki en önemli stres kaynağınız neydi?
İş problemleri ( ), Ailevi problemler ( ), Ekonomik durum ( ), Öğrenim-ders sorunları ( ), Hastalık ( ), Kişiler arası ve arkadaşlık ilişkileri ( ), Diğer ( )
12. Sigarayı daha önce bırakıp yeniden başladıysanız, aşağıdakilerden hangisi yeniden başlamanız üzerinde etkili olmuştur?
Yaşadığım stres ( ), Konsantrasyon bozukluğu ( ), Aşırı yemek yeme ve kilo alma ( ), Hayatımda ortaya çıkan boşluk ( ), Sorunlarımla başka şekilde başa çıkamama ( ), Diğer ( )
- Sigaraya devam etmenizde hangisinin rölü en fazladır?
Aşağıdaki durumları dikkatlice okuduktan sonra , üzerinde fazla zaman harcamadan içinizden gelen ilk cevapları aşağıdaki ölçeğe göre veriniz. Boşluklara sizce uygun olan rakamları kullanınız.
.HİÇBİR ZAMAN 4
.ÇOK AZ BİR ZAMAN 5
- Sigara içmeyi sosyal bir olgu olarak görüyorum.( )
- Sigara içince başkalarının dikkatini çekiyorum . ( )
- Sigara içince başkaları tarafından daha fazla değerli bulunduğumu hissediyorum.( )
- Sigara içerek sosyal etkinliğimi arttırıyorum.( )
- Sigara içmenin başkalarını etkilemede önemli olduğuna inanıyorum.( )
- Sigara sosyal ortamlara katılmamı kolaylaştırıyor. ( )
- Sigara içerek başkalarıyla daha kolay ilişkiye girebiliyorum. ( )
- Sigara içerek sosyal prestij sağladığımı düşünüyorum. ( )
- Sigara içince bir şeyin üstesinden gelebileceğime olan inancım artıyor.( )
- Sigara içerek bir konu üzerinde daha iyi düşünebiliyorum.( )
- Sigara ile daha iyi konsantre olabiliyorum.( )
- Sigara sağlıklı düşünmemi engellemiyor. ( )
- Sigara içince daha olumlu düşünüyorum.( )
- Sigara içmediğimde daha karamsar oluyorum.( )
- Sigara içerek hayal gücümü geliştiriyorum.( )
- Sigara içerek daha pratik oluyorum. ( )
- Sigara birçok konuda daha etkili olmamı sağlıyor.( )
- Sigara içerek kendimi rahatlatıyorum.( )
- Sigara içerek duygularımı kontrol edebiliyorum.( )
- Sigara içtiğimde vücudum hafifliyor.( )
- Sigara içmediğimde daha saldırgan oluyorum. ( )
- Sigara içerek başkalarına yöneltiğim kızgınlığımı yenebiliyorum. ( )
- Sigara içmediğimde daha saldırgan oluyorum. ( )
- Sigara içtiğimde daha çok mutlu olduğumu hissediyorum. ( )
- Sigara içerek sinirsel gerginliğimi azaltıyorum.( )
- Sigara içerek daha az heyecanlanıyorum. ( )
- Sigara içerek işerimi daha iyi organize ediyorum. ( )
- Sigara içerek ertelenmesi gereken şeyleri daha kolay erteleyebiliyorum. ( )
- Sigara içmek herhangi bir problemi çözmemde yardımcı oluyor.( )
- Sigara içerek kendime odaklaşıyorum.( )
- Sigara içerk yalnızlığımı gideriyorum.( )
- Sigarayı bırakmanın bir irade işi olduğuna inanıyorum. ( )
- Sigarayı istediğim zaman bırakabileceğime inanıyorum.( )
- Sigara içmediğimde kendimi boşukta hissediyorum. ( )
- Sigara içince kendimi daha iyi tanıma fırsatı buluyorum .( )